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 Themes in Social Sector Research:
The S Guhan Memorial Series - Discussion Papers

 

Discussion Paper No 13

Extent, Nature and causes of internal migrations in India: An exploratory analysis

by

D Jayaraj

Abstract:

India’s economic growth has been high since the 1980s and impressive since the mid-1990s. This growth should be expected to have opened up new opportunities for employment and acted as an inducement for both individual and family migrations. Against this background, an attempt has been made in this paper to analyse family migration—a relatively under researched issue—in India at four different points of time 1983, 1993, 2002 and 2008. The analysis of the reported causes suggests that while family migration in India is largely ‘pull’ induced, it is significantly induced by ‘push’ factors as well. The analysis also indicates that the trend growth rate of the economy, which is pleasing, hides a great deal of inherent instability in the economy. This instability is also reflected in the increase in temporary or short duration family migration in India over time.

 

 

 

Discussion Paper No 12

The deprivation distribution profile: A graphical device for comparing
alternative regimes of multidimensional poverty

by

S. Subramanian

Abstract :

This note presents a graphical device called the D-curve which serves as a representation of multidimensional deprivation when the latter is measured in a binary (`0/1’) fashion. Alternative regimes of multidimensional poverty can be compared in terms of the D-curve, and a binary relation of dominance, , defined in terms of pairs of non-intersecting D-curves, enables us to make unambiguous comparisons of poverty. The D-curve is analogous to the Lorenz curve in inequality analysis, and a real-valued measure of multidimensional deprivation, M, can be derived from the D-curve analogously to the derivation of the Gini coefficient of inequality from the Lorenz curve. The index M is related to other indices that have been proposed in the literature.
 

 


Discussion Paper No 11

A Chakravarty-D’Ambrosio Class of Social Exclusion Measures as a Foster-Greer-Thorbecke Class of Headcount Indices of Multidimensional Deprivation:  An Interpretive and Expository Note

by

S. Subramanian

Abstract :

In assessing multidimensional deprivation, it is often the case that the only information available to the analyst is on the number of dimensions in which each individual is deprived. This does not allow for reckoning possible degrees of deprivation an individual may experience in any dimension (the individual’s deprivation status, that is, is taken to be binary-valued). Further, the information available is not such as to permit either an easy or a non-arbitrary differential valuation of deprivations in different dimensions. However, one relatively non-controversial basis of discrimination would be, simply, the number of dimensions – here called the range of deprivation – in which a person is deprived. The present paper considers a simple procedure for sensitizing both the identification and the aggregation problems of multidimensional poverty measurement to the range of deprivation. The class of headcount indices of multidimensional deprivation discussed in this note is identical to a class of indices of social exclusion already investigated by Satya Chakravarty and Conchita D’Ambrosio (S. R. Chakravarty and C. D’Ambrosio, 2006: ‘The Measurement of Social Exclusion’, Review of Income and Wealth, 52(3): 377-398). It is hoped, though, that the present note nevertheless has its uses as an expository piece.
 

 


Discussion Paper No 10

Factors contributing to the Declining Trend in Sex-differentials in Mortality in India:
An Exploratory Analysis

by

D. Jayaraj

Abstract:

Mortality differential, as reflected in the differential in expectation of life at birth, was against females until the mid-1980s. This differential against females was attributed to discrimination against them in the intra-family allocation of resources, particularly in the spheres of access to healthcare and nutrition. However, by mid-1980s mortality differential against females has disappeared. Since then, expectation life at birth of females has been observed to exceed that of males. The disappearance of ‘excess’ female mortality is attributed to substantial reduction in discrimination against females in the intra-family allocation of resources in the spheres of access to healthcare and nutrition. In this context, an attempt has been made to analyse the trends in mortality differential disaggregated by age-groups. Attempt also has been made to identify the impacts of behavioural factors and change in mortality pattern across age-group on sex-differentials in mortality. The analysis indicates that there has been no change in the extent of mortality differential experienced by children in the age-groups 0-4 and 5-9 in the period 1971-2001. The results also show that (1) ‘excess’ female mortality, despite substantial reductions in it,  still persists in the prime reproductive age-group 20-24 as late as in 2001; and (2) the decline in ‘excess’ female mortality between 1971 and 2001 seems to be attributable, largely, to the process of demographic development. Thus, the results presented in this paper suggest that the disappearance of ‘excess’ female mortality does not indicate decline in subtle forms of discrimination against women in survival in India.  Indeed around 60 per cent of the decline in sex-differentials in mortality in favour of females at the overall level could not even be attributed to substantial reduction in survival disadvantage of females. The reduction is attributable to change in age-structure and faster decline in mortality rates in the age-groups at the lowest end of the age-spectrum.
 

 


Discussion Paper No 9

Horizontal and Vertical Inequality:
Some Interconnections and Indicators

by

D. Jayaraj and S. Subramanian

Abstract:

This note is concerned with presenting some simple indices of group-wise relative disadvantage in the distribution of income, in terms of the distance between the group’s share in total population and its share in total income. The group-wise indices are then aggregated into society-wide indices of inter-group disparity. Empirical illustrations of the note’s measurement concerns are provided, using data on the global distribution of income. The measures of horizontal inequality are shown to lead to corresponding measures of vertical inequality, in the special case in which the grouping resorted to is ‘individualistic’.
 

 

Themes in Social Sector Research:
The S Guhan Memorial Series - Monograph Series


Monograph 8

Irrigation in Tamilnadu: With Special Reference to Tank Irrigation

by

K. Sivasubramaniyan and V. Gandhiraj

Abstract:

Water is sine-qua-non to achieve agricultural prosperity, without which even Green Revolution couldn’t be possible. In arid and semi-arid regions irrigated agriculture increases productivity of crops by changing cropping pattern and cropping intensity. In Indian context, three sources of irrigation - canals, tanks and wells – help to achieve self-sufficiency in foodgrain production, especially from the mid-1960s. However, these irrigation sources were not given due preference over the Plan periods for its sustained development. As a result, especially in Tamil Nadu, canal irrigation stagnated, tank irrigation declined and well irrigation reached its boom. But, a tricky question is if the surface sources – canals and tanks – decline perpetually is there a way out to prosper for well irrigation? The theoretical answer is no. But the field situation is different. To find out exact reasons on this aspect this paper is developed by using both secondary and primary data source. Since the primary source is still premature some conclusions were drawn based on the studies and data already available. On the whole, the study concludes, even in the ongoing situation, if the available water resources are efficiently utilised – by using modern technology as well as precision farming methods – sustainability of agriculture could be possible. If this efficiency is not utilised then large investments to be made to develop the surface irrigation sources, especially the tank irrigation in the State to achieve prosperity in agriculture. If the tanks are not developed well irrigation will dip definitely.
 

 


Monograph 7

Trade Facilitation and WTO: An Indian Perspective

by

Moana Bhagabati and Rachna G Ganatra

Abstract:

In the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agenda, Trade Facilitation (TF) may not occupy centre-stage as other items, e.g. Agriculture and NAMA (Non-Agricultural Market Access) and Services. Nonetheless a reduction of procedural complexities by means of TF itself is a complex area of discussion among WTO Member countries. The underlying question being: would implementation of TF as a binding commitment in the WTO be a beneficial option?  A reduction in avoidable transaction costs calls for simplified procedures for data and documentation, automation, reduction in dwell time of cargo, transparency, faster clearance and risk management, financial regulations, transit with neighbouring countries, etc. This paper attempts to address this issue from India’s perspective while situating the subject in the WTO negotiations. Based on a detailed survey conducted among the trade in India, the paper assesses the status of TF in the country and seeks to build up a case for stepping up efforts and implementing policies.
 

 


Monoraph 6

Modernity and Status Autonomy: Reflections on a Survey of two Tamil Villages

by

Frank Heidemann

Abstract:

Fieldwork was conducted in two rather large multi-caste villages in north-west Tamil Nadu. Kolur must be considered as a “dry” village without irrigation, located in a remote area, while Sothumperumbedu, a village next to a national highway and industrial areas, is “wet” and allows the cultivation of a variety of cash crops. In comparison, there are more owner-cum-cultivator in Kolur, including a big number of scheduled castes, and in Sothumperumbedu there is more wealth, but not less poverty. In both villages the traditional village panchayat was abandoned, uur and colony have established separate forms of social organisation. The dichotomy of both residential locations becomes obvious in the field of labour relations, since Untouchable reject the supervision of higher caste people and prefer to work under supervisors (maistries) of their own community. Both sides have developed their own political leadership and new forms of religious worship. The strategies of scheduled castes are based on the ideal of status autonomy and include the avoidance of social situations indicating or expressing hierarchies. Contacts between scheduled and non-scheduled people are either avoided, ignored or mediated by NGOs (or sangams) or state institutions like police, tahsildar or district collector.
 

 


Monograph 5

Socio-Economic Factors Underlying Growth of Silk-Weaving
in the Arni Region - A Preliminary Study

by

D. Jayaraj and K. Nagaraj

Abstract:

This paper, employing both primary and secondary sources of data, documents the rapid growth of silk-weaving in the Arni region and examines the factors underlying it. The growth of this industry is related to a complex inter-play of various socio-economic and structural factors. Important among them are: the growth of the middle class, influenced, to a great deal, by the ‘pumpsets’ revolution; Sanskiritisation or upward social mobility; local specific factors like the availability of skill in Arni Town, agrarian distress, and spatial specialisation; and the complex organisational structure of the industry, the mainstay of which is the ‘putting out’ system with the master-weavers playing a central role. The mechanism employed by the direct producer, namely the weaver, to cope with the high levels of exploitation is also dealt with. It is identified that the coping mechanism, which ensures that a part of the burden of low wages is passed on to the agricultural sector, employed by the weaver helps to keep the cost of production and hence the price of silk sarees low, which in turn helps to exploit the mass mid-market.