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About the Journal | Editorial Board | Guidelines for Contributors | Subscription and Tariff | Current Issue | Back Issues  

 

review of
development & Change
Volume XV   Number 2, July - December 2010

 


Urban Labour Markets and the Return to Migration: Destination Surat

Gagan Bihari Sahu and Biswaroop Das, The Centre for Microfinance Research, Institute of Development Studies, Jaipur and the Centre for Social Studies, Surat.

Abstract

The paper deals with labour market mechanisms and the earnings of Oriya migrant workers in the city of Surat. It explores the importance of remittances in the original rural household income. Whether as single migrants, a part of a family, working on daily or piece rate basis, these migrant workers earn poorly and live miserably. Their jobs are characterized by lower wages, irregular income and employment, frequent retrenchment and a pronounced absence of any social security.The financial needs back home force them to deal with and negotiate a distorted labour market and inhuman living conditions. Trapped within this duality, the migrants economize on their living and provide financial support to families back in their rural homes. Though remittances account for over half the total income of families back home owing to landlessness and chronic indebtedness, remittances hardly add to the wellbeing of the families. The process, at best creates an environment where younger members of migrants’ families keep joining the up-country labour markets in cities like Surat.


Openness and Basic Motives of Foreign Portfolio Capital Flows into India

Nirmal Roy V P, Research Scholar, MIDS

Abstract

This study argues that, it is essential to understand the present openness and the basic motives underlying the financial flows before fully liberalizing them. In this case, an empirical analysis to understand the openness and to identify whether the foreign portfolio flows to India are driven by the capital gains motive or the income gains motive is attempted. It has been found that most of the controls on foreign portfolio flows are relaxed and these flows to India are driven primarily due to the capital gains motive and in the Indian case it is the change in stock prices. Before the analysis the econometric methodology has confirmed the long lasting relationship between the variables. Moreover, the causality checks also reveal that stock prices are causing the net foreign portfolio flows and not vice-versa.

Key Words: Short-term capital flows, Foreign Portfolio Investments, Openness

JEL Classification: F32, F36, F41


Economic Valuation of Health Impacts in a Coal Mining Region

Prajna Paramita Mishra, Faculty Associate, ICFAI School of Public Policy

Abstract

Development projects like mining always have a negative impact on health. The costs are in terms of externality and often excluded from financial appraisals of the project. In this paper an attempt has been made at economic valuation of health impacts of coal mining in the Ib valley coalfield of Orissa. Data are collected from 260 households from 5 mining villages and 100 households from 2 control villages. Our study found that those villages near both underground and opencast mines are the worst affected followed by villages near underground mines or opencast mines.  Cost of Illness (COI) and Willingness to Accept (WTA) methods have been used for the economic valuation of health impact. In terms of value, WTA appears to be six times greater than COI value. There is some debate in existing literature about choosing between both values. We suggested a sensitivity analysis to take into account both the values. The external costs should be included in the balance sheet of the company. They should provide free medical facilities not only to the employee’s family but also to the community as a whole. If these external costs are added it could be enough to reduce the economic viability.


Gender Equity in Private Tuitions: A Case Study of Delhi

Neeru Snehi, Assistant Professor, Department of Higher and Professional Education, National University of Educational Planning and Administration, New Delhi

Abstract

The paper on Gender equity in private tuition attempts to explain how private tuition in Delhi is flourishing though it is not legally approved. The investment on private tuition of children studying in government as well as private schools constitutes a significant part of household expenditure. The study shows that there is gender bias in the attitude of parents when availing private tuition for their children. Despite the fact that more and more parents are now interested in educating their daughters, they still invest less on the private tuitions of daughters than their sons. More girls than boys opt for group private tuitions where tuition fees are less while more boys are taught by private tutors in their homes paying higher fees. Parental preference for sons’ education leads to inequality in investment on extra coaching, the author reveals. It has also been suggested that Teacher Student Ratio and classroom situation need to be improved substantially to address the learning needs of the students, particularly girls.


Urbanization, Housing and the State of Living of Urban Poor in India

Rajkishor Meher, Reader in Industrial Sociology, Nabakrsuhna Choudhury Centre for Development Studies, Odisha, Bhubaneswar

Abstract

Urbanization in the largely populated developing countries like India is observed to be expanding mainly due to forced migration of rural poor seeking livelihood in the urban informal sector economy. The slums and squatter localities in which these urban poor reside are found deficient in supply of minimum basic civic services. In this scenario, unless adequate steps are taken to solve the housing problem and to improve the earning capacity of urban poor, the rapidly growing large cities of India will face enormous urban environmental management problems in terms of breakdown of basic civic services, increasing pollution and deteriorating quality of urban life. Using population census data, survey of slums in a growing capital city, Bhubaneswar and the observation of the environmental scenario of Indian cities, the paper makes a holistic analysis of the living of the urban poor in India with some prescriptive policy measures to improve the ‘quality of life’.