review of
development & Change

Volume XXIII  Number 1, January - June 2018


A Note from the Editor                                                                    

3

Pursuit of Sustainable and Equitable Growth in the Era of Globalisation: An Indian Perspective - A. Vaidyanathan

5

The Indian University Today: Our Intellectual and Professional Obligations - Nandini Sundar

40

Contractionary Fiscal Policy, Public Investment and Regional Growth Dynamics in India: An Empirical Analysis -  Santosh Kumar Das

76

Education for Climate Justice - Ravi Kanbur

107

Determinants of Urbanisation in Different Classes of Cities and Towns in India - Sabyasachi Tripathi and Chetana Rani

122

Influence of Maternal Short Stature on the Stunting Levels of Infants and Toddlers: A Case Study of Urban Slums in Chennai - M. Sridevi

151

A Note from the Editor

Madras Institute of Development Studies is pleased to announce a publication tie-up with Sage Publications India Pvt Ltd for our peer-reviewed journal Review of Development and Change (RDC) beginning Volume 24, Issue 1 (June 2019).  With this move RDC will have an enhanced presence both in print and digital forms.

We wish to express our gratitude for the support and encouragement we have received from our readers, authors and contributors.  We will continue to uphold the legacy of our founder, late Prof  Malcolm Adiseshiah, who started the Bulletin: Madras Development Seminar Series (also known as the MIDS Bulletin). In June 1994 the last issue of the Bulletin was published and in June 1995 a new journal took its place.  RDC, now in the 23rd year of its publication, is the successor to the Bulletin.

In order to signify the major changes in the area of social science research, we have revised the aim and scope of the journal which will now strive to examine diverse aspects of the changes taking place in our society and the Global South in particular and encourage multi-disciplinary theoretical and applied scholarship that perceives problems of development and social change in depth, documents them with care, interprets them with rigour and communicates the findings in a way that is accessible to readers from different backgrounds. We understand this will be a challenge as at present we are largely an India-focused journal. We plan to expand our coverage to other parts of South Asia and the Global South. The focus on multi-disciplinary scholarship in particular is because development crosses disciplinary boundaries and therefore will offer a more holistic understanding of how development works. The focus will be on issues of industry, agriculture, urbanisation, environment, social sector, and poverty and inequality.

As part of moving our journal to SAGE, we reconstituted our Editorial Advisory Board last year, which now reflects a truly interdisciplinary and global character that the journal aims for.  We have also designated members of the editorial committee as Managing Editors and inducted three new members to our editorial team as Associate Editors. 

The move to SAGE will entail a revision in our subscription tariffs for both individuals and institutions, which will be communicated to all our current subscribers and also updated on the MIDS website.


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Pursuit of Sustainable and Equitable Growth in the Era of Globalisation: An Indian Perspective
 

A. Vaidyanathan
 

Founder's Day Lecture, 18 April 2018, MIDS, Chennai.

 

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The Indian University Today: Our Intellectual and Professional Obligations
 

Nandini Sundar
 

Malcolm Adiseshiah Memorial Lecture, 21 November 2017, Chennai
 

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Contractionary Fiscal Policy, Public Investment and Regional Growth Dynamics in India: An Empirical Analysis
 

Santosh Kumar Das
 

Contractionary fiscal policy, which remains at the core of fiscal policy discourse in India, is built on the notion that there is a trade-off between fiscal deficit and economic growth. Higher deficit due to expansion of government's economic activities tends to crowd out private investment through its impact on interest rates thereby hampering economic growth. The present paper examines the empirical foundation of current policy discourse in India. The findings of this study do not support the predominant thesis that fiscal deficit positively influences the rate of interest. After empirically testing for the trade-off between fiscal deficit and economic growth, the paper analyses the implications of current fiscal policy, which is opposed to fiscal expansion, on public investment and regional economic growth in India. The study illustrates that the policy of fiscal squeezing has resulted in reduction in the level of public investment in a majority of Indian states during the post-liberalisation period. It is illustrated that a decline in public investment is likely to have adverse impact on the growth potential of regional economies.

 

*  *  *

 

Education for Climate Justice
 

Ravi Kanbur
 

Climate justice requires sharing the burdens and benefits of climate change and its resolution equitably and fairly. It brings together justice between generations and justice within generations. In particular, it requires that attempts to address injustice between generations through curbing greenhouse gas emissions do not end up creating injustice in our time by hurting the presently poor and vulnerable. This paper considers the transformative power of education in its many dimensions as one entry point into expanding the scope of policy instruments for climate justice. First, education can change behaviour, primarily in rich countries but also in poor countries, and thus help mitigate climate injustice between the generations. Second, resources targeted to the education of the poorest in poor countries can help their development but also help counter some of the negative spillover effects of interventions to mitigate climate change. Hence the title of this essay - Education for Climate Justice.

 

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Determinants of Urbanisation in Different Classes of Cities and Towns in India
 

Sabyasachi Tripathi and Chetana Rani
 

The present paper, using data from the latest 2011 Census, and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models, investigates the determinants of urbanisation in different classes of cities and towns in major states of India. Urbanisation is measured by size, growth and density of population in a city or a town. Environmental effect, spatial interaction effect and basic infrastructural facilities are used as independent variables in the study. The results show that urbanisation varies across different classes of cities and towns in India. Overall, our estimates show that favourable weather conditions encourage a city or town's population growth and its density, but not the size of the city or town's population. Political powers play a more important role than a city or town's economic potential for enabling urbanisation. But the current level of infrastructure is found to have a lower effect on urbanisation. The results obtained in this study differ from earlier studies with respect to different classes of cities and towns and also with regard to metrics used for estimating urbanisation. Finally, we suggest that for promoting urbanisation, appropriate urban policies that are suitable for different classes of cities and towns have to be evolved. Otherwise, India will face the problem of unbalanced urbanisation, thereby preventing the unlocking of the full potential contribution of urbanisation to economic growth in the country.
 

*  *  *

 

Influence of Maternal Short Stature on the Stunting Levels of Infants and Toddlers: A Case Study of Urban Slums in Chennai
 

M. Sridevi
 

Undernutrition (manifested as stunting) indicates a failure to achieve a child's genetic potential for height. Due to dearth of studies on the stunting levels of children in Chennai the present study makes an attempt to assess their nutritional status. The main objective of this research is to analyse the influence of maternal short stature on the stunting levels of infants/toddlers.  Logistic regression model has been used to assess the association and statistical results show that maternal factors like education of the mother, taking vitamin tablets during pregnancy, breastfeeding the child and weight of the mother significantly influence the stunting levels of her child. Height of the mother is found to be negatively associated with stunting, thus emphasising that maternal short stature is a significant contributor to a child's stunting levels, especially in slum areas. Suitable policies and interventions are suggested for children younger than two years to prevent growth retardation, intellectual impairment and avoid intergenerational effects of stunting.

 

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