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About the Journal | Editorial Board | Guidelines for Contributors | Subscription and Tariff | Current Issue | Back Issues  


review of
development & Change
Volume XVII   Number 2, July - December 2012


How pro-poor the growth has been during 1993-2012? Policy implication for socially inclusive growth 

Sukhadeo Thorat, Chairman, ICSSR, New Delhi; Professor, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi


This paper evaluates how pro-poor the growth has been during the post-reform period of 1993-2012 using secondary date and the criteria suggested by Prof. Carlson of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). The criteria state that the rate of change in the levels of in income among the poor groups should be higher than the rate of economic growth and that such rise in income should be non-discriminatory in nature with regard to different socio-economic groups among the poor. The pro-poor multi-dimensional growth must reduce poverty only then the growth will be pro-poor and the very poor must benefit more than other groups. The criteria also mean that the rate of fall in poverty must be of a greater magnitude than the rate of growth.  The data shows that the rate of this fall is differentiated and it is greater for landed farmers and non-agricultural private enterprise owners as compared to other poor groups.  For casual labour, it is less and the fall has not been pro-poor towards marginal farmers and petty producers.  In terms of social groups, the positive aspect is that poverty of all social groups has fallen including SC, ST, and non-SC and non-ST groups.  The fall has been relatively at a higher rate for non-SC and non-ST at 2.7% whereas, for SC and ST, it has been 2.4% only.  Among religious groups, the poverty of Muslims has fallen at higher rate both in rural and urban areas and the fall is better when compared to SC and ST and Hindus, as an aggregate category.



Indian Statistical System: Emerging Concerns and New Initiatives           

R. Radhakrishna, Chairman, National Statistical Commission, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India, New Delhi and Chairperson, Madras Institute of Development Studies, Chennai.


The initiation of planning in India after independence did strengthen the statistical agencies and give significant impetus to the evolution of the institutional architecture of the Indian Statistical System.  The main objective of the Indian Statistical System is to provide a numerical picture of the economy and society and Economy, generate the data needed for the formulation and monitoring of the economic and social policies, and provide information base for an independent evaluation of the functioning of the economy.  In recent years, the Indian Statistical System is facing several new challenges apart from the need to overcome the existing short comings.  While the enormous growth of global financial markets in the recent past has seen rapid expansion in supply of financial statistics spurred by IT revolution, the real sector statistics have lagged behind the growing requirements of the diversification of national economies driven by globalization.  There are also problems in deriving macroeconomic aggregates like Gross Domestic Product, Savings and Investment from the available data on capital market operations.  This paper discusses these and other emerging concerns and challenges facing Indian Statistical System and elaborates on the initiatives taken in the recent years to overcome of these concerns and challenges.



Developments in Water Technology and Social Relations in Rural Punjab

Birinder Pal Singh, Professor, Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab

Geet Lamba, Assistant Professor, University College, Moonak, Punjab.


Water had ever been the most important resource in an agricultural economy. Punjab is historically and still primarily agricultural and its social relations had always been influenced by water’s availability and its distribution. The present paper examines the role of developments in water technology in influencing and determining social relations especially with respect to social conflict. Till the advent of green revolution agriculture was dependent on natural rain and partly on canal irrigation and dug wells. But with technological developments there is sea change on the irrigation scenario in the state. It is an attempt to examine qualitatively, following numerous case studies how these developments in water technology classified under three heads –pre-green revolution, green revolution and post- green revolution– and correspondingly related to three classes of peasants –large, middle and small/marginal– have affected social relations amongst them in the domains of family, village and labour in rural Punjab.


Solving Irrigation - Energy Squeeze for Realising Agrarian Prospects in Bihar

Rakesh Tiwary, Independent Researcher and Water Resource Management Specialist based in Patna, Bihar. Currently the author is working as consultant to Government of Bihar.


Despite huge potentials, agriculture growth in Bihar is severely constrained by lack of irrigation facilities. Contribution of surface irrigation is small and declining; on other hand, State has not been able to harness large groundwater resources.  Groundwater irrigation can accelerate agriculture growth. However, the state is facing severe energy shortage. Energy utilisation for agriculture purpose is abysmally low. Huge challenge lies ahead in meeting irrigation- energy deficits in the State. Measures on multiple fronts would be required to meet energy demands for accelerating agriculture growth. tc "Independent Researcher and Water Resource Management Specialist based in Patna, Bihar. Currently. the author is working as consultant to Government of Bihar."



Agricultural Labour Restructuring Process in Karnataka: Is Agriculture becoming a Women’s Domain?

N. Rajasekaran, Professor and Head, MBA, OAA-MAVMM School of Management, Madurai.

P. Babu, Director, Institute for Cultural Research and Action (ICRA), Bangalore.


The study comprehends the restructuring process of agricultural labourers and seeks to analyze the economic transformation and the shift in livelihood systems of the labour households in the semi-arid regions of Karnataka.  The study reveals that only around 50 per cent of the livelihood of an agricultural labour household comes from agriculture (both from own cultivation and from agricultural labour work in the semi-arid regions). The determinants of the restructuring process manifest that the changing agricultural production systems in the nascent liberalization, the non-availability of work in the rural areas and frequent droughts causing distress in the semi-arid regions are critical instrumental factors in the agricultural labour restructuring process. Marginal and small farmers with immovable properties are not in a position to migrate with their families to urban areas and hence agriculture slowly becomes the domain of women due to the compulsions of children’s education and the social organization of agricultural production.



Vulnerability of Widows and Justifiability of their Social Protection from Macroeconomic Standpoint

 Subrata Dutta, Associate Professor, Sardar Patel Institute of Economic and Social Research, Ahmedabad 380 054, Gujarat.


Widowhood in India is often theorized by scholars as her social death. Thus, her social exclusion or social ‘unfreedom’ fosters her economic unfreedom, barring her from participating in woman-friendly employment withinin social and religious spheres. Such unfreedom of widows make them heavily depend on the male and make them the subject of various types of deprivation. Widows need basic support and as they do not usually receive basic support from their family, the state needs to provide them with support in the form of social security. Poor countries in general are reluctant to offer a sizeable basket of social security to its large numbers of socially excluded, poor people. In most cases, high budget constraints stand in the way of building up a required fund. For most of the developing countries, tax revenue as a ratio to GDP is about half the level of industrial countries. The income and wealth of the rich, which are under-taxed due to loopholes and/or poor enforcement of tax laws, can be targeted for broadening the tax base.



Review Article

C.T. Kurien

Wealth and Illfare

by S. Neelakantan